by Jerry Shugart

Appendix 4: Progressive Dispensationalists Admit to a Typological Relationship

Progressive Dispensationalists themselves see that there is a typological relationship between the blessings promised under Israel's New Covenant and the blessings received under today's New Testament. Progressive Dispensationalist W. Edward Glenny says the following:

"Once again, although Israel's experience is a pattern for New Testament believers, the context of Hosea 1-2 prophesies a future fulfillment of this pattern in the nation of Israel" [emphasis added](Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism, Israel and the Church [Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1992], p.181).

According to Glenny when he speaks of "patterns" he is describing a relationship between "types" and "antitypes": "A pattern or correspondance must exist between the Old Testament type and the New Testament antitype" [emphasis added] (Ibid., p.158).

The particular "pattern" to which Glenny makes reference is in regard to the following promises made in Hosea 1-2. Here are his words:

"The verses from Hosea alluded to in 1 Peter 2:10 voice God's promise that in a future day these people who were 'no longer loved' (Hos. 1:6) and 'not my people' (1:8) would receive God's love (2:23) and be called 'my loved one' (2:1), 'my people,' (2:23) and 'sons of the living God' (1:10). These promises in Hosea are given to Israel and will be fulfilled in 'that day'...The day when these promises will be fulfilled will also be the day when the nation of Israel acknowledges Yahweh as 'my God' (2:23). In 'that day' God will establish an eternal unbreakable relationship with Israel (2:19)" [emphasis added] (Ibid., p.178).

This "unbreakable relationship" between the Lord and Israel is the "New Covenant" promised to the nation of Israel at Jeremiah 31:31. The promises of the Lord to Israel at Hosea 2:19-20 speak of this unbreakable relationship:

"And I will betroth thee unto me for ever; yea, I will betroth thee unto me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in lovingkindness, and in mercies. I will even betroth thee unto me in faithfulness: and thou shalt know the LORD" (Hos.2:19-20).

In a commentary of these verses Robert B. Chisholm, Jr., writes that "in the future all Israel will 'know' the Lord because, as Jeremiah wrote, He will put His 'Law in their minds and write it on their hearts' (Jer.31:33). This is the promise of the New Covenant (Jer. 31:31-34), which corresponds to the new marriage pictured in Hosea 2:19-20)" [emphasis added] (Walvoord & Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary; Old Testament, p.1386).

Therefore we can understand that the "type" to which Glenny makes reference is the New Covenant promised to the nation of Israel:

"A pattern or correspondance must exist between the Old Testament type and the New Testament antitype."

We can also see that Glenny understands that the "pattern" revealed in "Israel's New Covenant" is in regard to the salvation and spiritual benefits received by the "individual" believer today :

"The allusion to Hosea 1-2 in 1 Peter 2:10 is the conclusion of Peter's doctrinal statement in 2:4-10 and the goal toward which all of the Old Testament quotations, allusions, and comments on them in verses 4-10 have been directed. The point of Peter's catena of Old Testament references is that by virtue of their relationship with Jesus, the elect Messiah, his recipients are the elect people of God in these last days. He does not explicitly call them the 'new' or the 'true' Israel; instead he shows that they are the 'people of God', whose salvation and spiritual benefits under the new covenant follow a pattern established in God's promised relationship with his chosen people, the nation of Israel" [emphasis added] (Blaising & Bock, Dispensationalism, Israel and the Church, p.179).

Glenny teaches that the blessings which Christians receive today flow from Israel's New Covenant. He also states that "Peter is teaching that the church represents a pattern and thus is a fulfillment of the promises made to Israel in these Old Testanment passages" [emphasis added] (Ibid. p.183).

This matches what Blaising says when he says that the blessings of Israel's New Covenant are the same blessings enjoyed by Christians today:

"It is indisputable that the New Testament views the new covenant predicted by Jeremiah and Ezekiel as established in the death of Jesus Christ with some of the promised blessings now being granted to Jews and Gentiles who are believers in Jesus. These are not blessings which are like those predicted by Jeremiah and Ezekiel. They are the very same blessings which those prophets predicted. For the new covenant which is presently in effect through Jesus Christ is not one which is like that predicted by Jeremiah and Ezekiel, but is that very same covenant which they prophesised which is in effect today" (Blaising & Bock, Progressive Dispensationalism [Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1993], p.202).

Types and Antitypes

According to Glenny "Israel's experience is a pattern for New Testament believers." He says that this pattern is in regard to a "typological" relationship, writing that "a pattern or correspondance must exist between the Old Testament type and the New Testament antitype".

The word "antitype" is translated from the Greek word antitypos. The word anti, when used as a prefix, means "opposite, over against" (Thayers's Greek English Lexicon).

The very meaning of the word "antitype" refutes the idea that the "type" and the "antitype" can be the very same thing. The typological theory that Glenny puts forth overthrows the very nature of an antitype. If we are to believe Glenny's theory we must believe that the "type" and the "antitype" are the very same thing despite the fact that the very meaning of the word "antitype" makes that idea impossible.

While it is clear that Israel's promised New Covenant is a "type" of today's New Testament it is readily seen that the blessings under both are not the same blessings. The blessings which will flow from Israel's New Covenant are blessings for a "nation" and not for an "individual." The blessings under Israel's New Covenant are related to the "earthly" sphere and not to the "heavenly" sphere, the sphere to which the blessings under the New Testament relate.


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